The average temperatures in the summer months of June, July, August, and September are very high. Sea breezes may mitigate the heat, but sometimes the sirocco winds reverse the trend. In autumn, it begins to rain, often with short thunderstorms, which can sometimes cause flash floods or even flood some parts of the city. Tunis has been the capital of Tunisia since Under Articles 43 and 24 of the Constitution of ,  Tunis and its suburbs host the national institutions: The revised Tunisian Constitution of similarly provides that the National Assembly is to sit in Tunis article 51 and that the Presidency is based there article Following the municipal elections of 6 May , Ennahdha obtained 21 seats out of Nidaa Tounes came second with 17 seats.
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On 3 July , the head of the Ennahdha list Souad Abderrahim was elected by the council as the new mayor of the capital. Before , unlike other mayors in Tunisia, the mayor of Tunis is appointed by decree of the President of the Republic from among the members of the City Council. The budget adopted by the City Council is structured as follows: Revenues are generated by the proceeds of taxes on buildings and vacant lots, fees for the rental of municipal property, income from the operation of the public, advertising, and that the fact that the municipality has capital shares in some companies.
On the expenditure side, provision is made for the consolidation of hygiene and cleanliness, the state of the environment and urban design, infrastructure maintenance, rehabilitation and renovation of facilities, and strengthening the logistics and means of work and transport. The city of Tunis, whose size has increased significantly during the second half of the 20th century, now extends beyond the Tunis Governorate into parts of the governorates of Ben Arous , Ariana and Manouba. The municipality of Tunis is divided into 15 municipal districts: In the years following independence, the population of the metropolitan area continued to grow: Decolonization led to the exodus of some European minorities whose numbers dwindled every year.
The gaps created by their departure were filled by Tunisians who emigrated to Tunis from other parts of the country. At the beginning of the 21st century, the city of Tunis exceeds 2,, inhabitants. After independence, the Tunisian government implemented a plan to cope with population growth of the city and country, a system of family planning, to attempt to lower the rate of population growth.
However, between and , the population of the governorate of Tunis grew more than 1.
Tunis - Wikipedia
It represents, in the census, 9. The education level is only exceeded by the neighbouring governorate of Ariana which has many institutions of education. Products include textiles, carpets , and olive oil. Tourism also provides a significant portion of the city's income. Because of the concentration of political authority headquarters of the central government, presidency, parliament, ministries and central government and culture festivals and mainstream media , Tunis is the only nationally ranking metropolis.
Tunis is the heartland of the Tunisian economy and is the industrial and economic hub of the country, home to one third of Tunisian companies—including almost all the head offices of companies with more than fifty employees, with the exception of the Compagnie des Phosphates de Gafsa , headquartered in Gafsa —and produces a third of the national gross domestic product.
According to the Mercer Cost of Living Rankings, Tunis has the lowest cost of living for expatriates in the world. In addition, unemployment is high in young people aged 18 to 24, with one in three unemployed as compared to one in six at the national level. The project hopes to boost the economy of Tunisia as well as increase the number of tourists visiting Tunisia annually. Currently the project is going through planning.
The economic structure of Tunis, as well as that of the country, is overwhelmingly tertiary industry. Primary industry such as agriculture, however, is active in specialized agricultural areas on the suburbs, particularly in the wine and olive oil industries. The generally flat terrain and the two main rivers in Tunisia, the Medjerda to the north and the Milian to the south, the soils are fertile.
In addition, groundwater is easily accessible through the drilling of deep wells, providing water for the different agriculture crops. The soils are heavy and contain limestone in the north but are lighter and sandy containing clay in the south. The Medina , built on a gentle hill slope on the way down to the Tunis Lake , is the historical heart of the city and home to many monuments, including palaces, such as the Dar Ben Abdallah and Dar Hussein , the mausoleum of Tourbet el Bey or many mosques such as the Al-Zaytuna Mosque.
Some of the fortifications around it have now largely disappeared, and it is flanked by the two suburbs of Bab Souika to the north and Bab El Jazira to the south. Located near the Bab Souika, the neighborhood of Halfaouine which gained international attention through the film ' Halfaouine Child of the Terraces '. But east of the original nucleus, first with the construction of the French Consulate, the modern city was built gradually with the introduction of the French protectorate at the end of the 19th century, on open land between the city and the lake.
On both sides of the tree lines avenue, north and south, the city was extended in various districts, with the northern end welcoming residential and business districts while the south receives industrial districts and poorer peoples. South-east of the Avenue Bourguiba the district of La Petite Sicile Little Sicily is adjacent to the old port area and takes its name from its original population of workers from Italy. It is now the subject of a redevelopment project including the construction of twin towers.
North of the Avenue Bourguiba is the district of La Fayette, which is still home to the Great Synagogue of Tunis and the Habib Thameur Gardens, built on the site of an ancient Jewish cemetery which lay outside the walls. Also to the north is the long Avenue Mohamed V, which leads to the Boulevard of 7 November through the neighborhood of the big banks where there are hotels and Abu Nawas Lake and finally to the Belvedere area around the place Pasteur. This is where the Belvedere Park lies, the largest in the city, and home to a zoo and the Pasteur Institute founded by Adrien Loir in Still further north of the Belvedere Park, behind the Boulevard of 7 November are the neighborhoods of El Menzah and El Manar now reaching the peaks of the hills overlooking the north of the town.
They support a range of residential and commercial buildings. To the west of the park lies the district of El Omrane which holds the main Muslim cemetery in the capital and the warehouses of public transport. Heading east is the Tunis-Carthage International Airport and the neighborhoods of Borgel, giving his name to the existing Jewish and Christian cemeteries in the capital, and the neighbourhood of Montplaisir.
Beyond that, several kilometers north-east, on the road to La Marsa , the Berges du Lac was built on land reclaimed from the north shore of the lake near the airport, which has holds offices of Tunisian and foreign companies, many embassies as well as shops. Northwest of the latter, north of the National Route 3 leading to the west, is the city of Ezzouhour formerly El Kharrouba , which spans more than three metres 9. It is still surrounded with farmland and vegetables are grown which supply many of the souks in the region. The south of Tunis is made up of disadvantaged neighborhoods, especially due to the strong industry in this part of the metropolis.
These include Jebel Jelloud , located in the south-east of Tunis, which concentrates on the heavy industry of cement production, the treatment plant of phosphate s, etc. The main cemetery in Tunis, the Djellaz Cemetery, dominates this part of town, perched on the slopes of a rocky outcrop. The Medina contains some monuments, including palaces, mosques, mausoleums , madrasas and fountains dating from the Almohad and the Hafsid periods.
These ancient buildings include:. With an area of hectares over 29 hectares for the Kasbah  and more than , people, the Medina comprises one-tenth of the population of Tunis. The planning of the Medina of Tunis has the distinction of not grid lines or formal geometric compositions. However, studies were undertaken in the s with the arrival of the first anthropologists who found that the space of the Medina is not random: The notion of public space is ambiguous in the case of Medina where the streets are seen as an extension of the houses and subject to social tags.
The concept of ownership is low however and souks often spill out onto public roads. Today, each district has its culture and rivalries can be strong. The northern end supports the football club of Esperance Sportive de Tunis while at the other end is the rival Club Africain. The Medina also has a social sectorization: Founded in is the Al-Zaytuna Mosque and the surrounding area which developed throughout the Middle Ages ,  dividing Tunis into a main town in two suburbs, in the north Bab Souika and the south Bab El Jazira.
The area became the capital of a powerful kingdom during the Hafsid era, and was considered a religious and intellectual home and economic center for the Middle East, Africa and Europe. A great fusion of influences can be seen blending Andalusian styles with eastern influences, and Roman or Byzantine columns, and typical Arab architecture, characterized by the archways. The architectural heritage is also omnipresent in the homes of individuals and small palace officials as well as in the palace of the sovereign of Kasbah.
Although some palaces and houses date back to the Middle Ages, a greater number of prestigious houses were built in the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries such as Dar Othman early 17th century , Dar Ben Abdallah 18th century , Dar Hussein , Dar Cherif and other houses. Unlike Algiers , Palermo and Naples , its historical heart has never suffered from major natural disasters or urban radical interventions. The main conflicts and potentially destructive human behavior has been experienced in the city occurred relatively recently following the country's independence which it why it made into a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in At the beginning of the 21st century, the Medina is one of the best preserved urban locations in the Arab world.
Furthermore, along the boulevards, the contribution of the architectural period — can be felt in the buildings, such as the government buildings of the nine ministries and the headquarters of the municipality of Tunis.
The souks are a network of covered streets lined with shops and traders and artisans ordered by specialty. It is known for its essences and perfumes. From this souk, there is a street leading to the Souk Ech-Chaouachine chachia. The main company that operates it is one of the oldest in the country and they are generally descendants of Andalusian immigrants expelled from Spain. Attached to El Attarine are two other souks: Given the valuable items it sells, it is the only souk whose doors are closed and guarded during the night. In the middle there is a square where the former slave market stood until the middle of the 19th century.
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Souk El Berka leads to Souk El Leffa , a souk that sells all kinds of carpets, blankets and other weavings, and extends with the Souk Es Sarragine, built in the early 18th century and specializing in leather. From the early days of its founding, Tunis has been considered an important military base. The Arab geographer El Yacoubi has written that in the 9th century Tunis was surrounded by a wall of brick and clay except the side of the sea where it was stone.
Bab Cartagena gave access to Carthage, important for bringing in construction materials needed for the city. With the development of the capital under the reign of the Hafsids , two emerging suburbs grew outside the walls; Bab El Jazira in the south and Bab Souika to the north. In the Ottoman period, four new gates were established: The capital is home to a large number of mosques in various architectural styles, signs of construction of their respective eras.
The main and oldest of them, is the Al-Zaytuna Mosque , founded in and built in and is in the heart of the Medina. Practicing the Maliki rite as the vast majority of Tunisia's Mosques. It was completely rebuilt in and is a prestigious place of worship, and was long an important place of culture and knowledge with the University of Ez-Zitouna on the premises until the independence of Tunisia. It still hosts the main ceremonies marking the dates on the Muslim calendar and is regularly attended by the president. The medina contains most of the major mosques in the capital which were built before the advent of the French protectorate.
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The mosque in the Kasbah, was founded in Practicing the Hanafi rite since , it is recognisable mainly by the dome as well as its minaret, similar to the Koutoubia in Marrakesh and is the highest in the city. The presence of modern churches in Tunis are also testimony to the French presence for half a century. Tunis is the seat of the Diocese of Tunis , with the seat located at the Cathedral of St Vincent de Paul , The church was built in on the site of the old Christian cemetery of Saint-Antoine.
Greeks used to enjoy an important presence in the city since ancient times. The small Orthodox community is centred around the Greek Orthodox Church , managed by the Greek Embassy and the Russian Orthodox Church , reflecting the presence in Tunisia of a small colony of Russian immigrants. Judaism meanwhile enjoys a long tradition of presence in the city despite the emigration of a large part of the community after independence.
Among the places of worship are Beit Yaacouv Synagogue and especially the Great Synagogue of Tunis , built at the end of the s to replace the former Great Synagogue which was demolished as part of the Jewish redevelopment area, the Hara. Tunis has some large parks, many of which were installed at the end of the 19th century by the authorities of the French protectorate.
It is the oldest public park in the country and is built in the landscape style common to France. Habib Thameur garden in Tunis has a central pond and flower beds. The Gorjani garden, is an English garden located southwest of the city, which notably takes an irregular form, partly due to the steep topography of the land. Located in an old beylical palace the palace of the Bey of Tunis since the end of the 18th century , the Bardo National Museum is the most important archaeological museum in the Maghreb , and has one of the richest Roman mosaic collections in the world.
Its collections developed rapidly, thanks to numerous archaeological discoveries in the surrounding territory. In the Dar Ben Abdallah , a palace probably dating back to the 18th century, became the seat of the capital's Museum of Arts and Popular Traditions. In its exposition halls it holds numerous traditional items, witnesses of the everyday lives of families of the Medina quarter. After the advent of independence, a museum was built there to relate the details of the national struggle between and The National Military Museum, opened in in the suburbs west of the city, holds a collection of 23, weapons, 13, of which date back to the 19th century, and some of which were used by the Tunisian troops during the Crimean War.
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